Is there any kind of food that can represent Tianjin?
Ask the people in Tianjin with this, and the answer is basically "pancake Lizi".
If you ask outsiders, the answer is almost always-Goubuli Baozi.
Many foreign tourists who arrive in Tianjin for the first time can't wait to go to Goubuli to check in.
As a result, the full of enthusiasm was instantly chilled by the blank eyes of the waiter's eldest sister, the average consumption of 200 per capita, and the sticky buns.
Even the Tianjin taxi driver who has always been "cheating" dissed him: idiots went there to eat!
In fact, Tianjin people really love buns, but nowadays, it does not include Goubuli.
Steamed buns have a history of thousands of years in China, and there are many distinctive steamed buns everywhere.
Shengjianbao, Xiaolongbao, Barbecued Steamed Bun, Pork Bun, Baked Bun... Some of these buns are used as snacks, some are used as snacks, and some are directly staple food.
In Tianjin, steamed buns are an out-and-out staple food.
In the Tianjin breakfast industry, because there are pancakes, pancakes (gā), bacai, fried dough sticks, yangzi (soy milk), sesame cakes, etc., the sense of existence of buns is not as strong as many outsiders imagine. Change your mouth.
But when it's time for dinner, a few steamed buns, a bowl of mung bean porridge, and one or two cold dishes are a daily simple meal for many people in Tianjin.
It's a simple meal, but it takes a lot of time to make it. To become a qualified Tianjin steamed bun, there are three hurdles to pass: one gong of fat and half-haired noodles, water filling and eighteen pleats.
One gong fat half-bread noodle is to mix the yeast and flour with water and ferment for a period of time. When the noodles become plump, add alkali and stir (chuāi) thoroughly. After a while, knead the noodles, rub the noodles, add the ingredients, and roll the skin.
The buns made in this way are pliable and chewy, impervious to oil and do not fall off the bottom. It will not soak up the soup like the steamed buns of Dafa Noodles; it will also avoid filling the soup bag, which will cause the dough to die in order to retain the soup.
Water filling, pork fat-to-lean ratio 3:7 or 4:6, chop into minced meat, use pork bones and pork belly to make stock and soy sauce to adjust the filling.
In one direction and a certain proportion, slowly stir the broth and soy sauce into the chopped pork minced several times, then add the sesame oil and minced ginger, rice and green onions.
The cooked buns with water filling have turned into meatballs, but they are still soft. Take a bite of the soup, fragrant but not greasy.
Mr. Liang Shiqiu mentioned in "Ya She Talks about Eating" that Tianjin steamed buns have a lot of soup, which can be sprayed on the face of the opposite person in one bite. If it accidentally flows into the sleeves, it can be burned all the way to the back.
The eighteen pleats are the requirements for the appearance of the buns, and it is not necessary to have eighteen. Some stores can pack 20 or even 22 pleats.
Order two or three steamed buns at the bun shop, and then come to a plate of deboned meat that has been removed from the big bones of the boiled stock. Just a little soy sauce is enough to be delicious.
Pick up a steamed bun, bite it, and eat it so oily. If you are not afraid of being hot, take a bite quickly. No matter how many adjectives, it seems redundant, just the word "xiang".
Just take a bite of mung bean porridge or millet porridge, the fragrance dilutes the oiliness, and you can't wait to take another bite of the bun.
Just like these, you can't spend a lot of money even if you can support the wall.
There is a allegorical saying in Tianjin: Goubuli's buns-one drawer on top of another. On the one hand, the business of Goubuli was booming; on the other hand, the steamed buns in Tianjin had to be eaten hot and not returned to the basket, because the taste and quality of the steamed buns that were returned to the basket after being cold cannot be guaranteed. Therefore, in Tianjin Baozi shop, as long as the business is not too bad, you can always see someone making buns.
Cold steamed buns or leftover steamed buns are packaged home. Don't steam them in the pot or heat them in the microwave. The best way to deal with them is to fry them to make "deep-fried buns".
Nowadays, the Tianjin steamed buns we eat are mostly based on pork filling, three fresh fillings and vegetarian fillings. In fact, Tianjin steamed buns have changed in many ways.
In the 1930s and 1940s, during the heyday of Tianjin Baozi, Baozi shops were all over Tianjin City.
In order to win a place in the fierce competition, many bun shops have tried their best to hide countless kinds of ingredients in the bun skin, so that every bite can be pleasantly surprised.
The fresh and tender meat skin is scraped, soaked to remove the smell, add cinnamon, aniseed, cardamom and other spices, boil until half-cooked, let cool and cut into small pieces.
Then add cooking wine and sesame oil to mix the stuffing, stir in shrimp, shrimp or crab roe for freshness, and some bun shops will add some spinach to increase the aroma and dissolve greasy.
The steamed pork bun has a slimy mouth, because the grease is shaved off, and although it is chewed, it will not feel greasy.
Tianjin's pork buns emphasize "one bite and one pocket of oil", while the vegetarian stuffed buns are naturally at a disadvantage in terms of ingredients.
However, after the people of Tianjin have exhausted their minds, this vegetarian stuffing has also become a classic of Tianjin steamed buns.
The stuffing of the plain stuffed buns is a mixture of 19 kinds of ingredients including fungus, shiitake mushrooms, cauliflower, tofu skin, mushrooms, dried tofu, gluten, bean sprouts, vermicelli, fermented bean curd, sesame sauce and sesame oil.
Vegetarian steamed buns are quite troublesome to make, because many of the ingredients need to be processed in advance: mushrooms and dried tofu should be sautéed in oil beforehand; use sauced tofu in a pot and season with sesame oil.
The rolls in Tianjin’s breakfast use a simple version of this vegetarian stuffing.
Wrapped vegetarian buns have thin skins and large fillings, and are at least twice as big as meat buns. For a 90-gram vegetarian bun, the fillings must account for 60 grams. Take a bite, the aroma of sesame sauce and the freshness of vegetables.
The most famous plain bun in Tianjin is the plain bun at the stone gate. The name of the stone gate was originally called Zhensu Garden, but it has the alias of "Stone Gate", according to legend, because it had a waterproof stone gate on the original site next to Tianhou Palace.
There is an old shop in Tianjin that sells roast duck in a hanging oven-Zhengyang Chun Duck House.
In addition to roast duck, this shop also has a very attractive delicacy-duck oil buns.
Duck fat is made from the dripping oil from roasting duck. It is filtered and refined with spices such as green onion, ginger and star anise. The refined duck fat removes the fishy smell of duck fat and makes it more fragrant.
Combine duck fat with pork, green onions and stuffing, which is the stuffing of duck fat bun.
Unlike the 18-fold water stuffed buns, the wrapped duck oil buns are oval like leaves. It is also said that this kind of bun is imitating the shape of a Taoist hat in the Song Dynasty, and it is also called a Taoist hat bag.
But when it comes to eating, the duck fat packet is also "one bite and one bite." Once I bought two duck fat bags at the take-out window of Zhengyangchun, and took two bites on the road. As a result, the fat dripped down my arms.
In fact, this idea of making full use of ingredients can be seen in the diets of many places. English roast goose will put potatoes under the goose meat to absorb the fat and juice of the goose meat.
There is a saying in Tianjin: Dangdang eating seafood is not too bad. This is also a true portrayal of Tianjin people's delicious seafood.
Naturally, the existence of seafood cannot be omitted in the steamed buns. Shrimp, sea cucumber, hemp clams, shellfish, crab roe, pippi prawns... can all be packaged in buns, and the most distinctive of Tianjin is the hemp clam buns.
Hemp clams, in fact, are cockles. After spitting out the sand, the hairy clams are removed from the shell and chopped, the prawns and pork are opened and stuffed, and the chopped hemp clams are added, and a few strands of leeks are added.
The cooked hemp clam buns, the deliciousness of shellfish, the aroma of pork, and the delicateness of prawn mud, have reached a perfect balance, which makes people want to stop.
In addition, three fresh buns, sauced pork buns, mushroom buns, vegetarian leek and shrimp buns...As long as they can be made into fillings, there are no buns that Tianjin people can't make (except for dark dishes of course).
The fillings of Tianjin steamed buns are so rich and delicate, which are closely related to the water transportation culture in the history of Tianjin Wei.
At the beginning of the 7th century, the Grand Canal was officially opened, and Tianjin became an important port for river-sea transportation. In the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the canal shipping reached its peak, and a large number of southern laborers followed the canal northward, bringing the food and beverages of Jiangnan and Huaiyang to Tianjin. Back then, Tianjin was also called "Little Yangzhou".
The steamed buns in Tianjin also came from the south along the Grand Canal, so it looks like the big steamed buns in Shandong in the north, but more like soup dumplings in the south.
The main consumers of steamed stuffed buns are the laborers and crews going north along the canal. Because steamed stuffed buns and rice are integrated, they are full and anti-hungry. They don’t need dishes and chopsticks, which can save time to the greatest extent.
From the late Qing Dynasty to the Republic of China, although the status of canal water transportation continued to decline, steamed buns still became the most popular staple food in Tianjin at that time.
The technical barriers of steamed buns are not so high. In order to survive the fierce market competition, various stores have tried their best to work hard on the skins and fillings. For example, the steamed steamed buns have gradually developed because of the lack of attention.
As for why it is called "Goubuli"? According to Gao Huanzhang, the grandson of the founder of Goubuli, "Goubuli" is his grandfather's nickname.
In fact, the real name of Goubuli is "Deju", but people are used to calling it an alias.
In the Republic of China, Goubuli was indeed one of the most famous bun shops in Tianjin.
The traditional cross talk "Belling Picture" says that people who sell steamed buns must yell, but "dogs ignore" it does not yell, because it is a merchant.
传统的相声“ Belling Picture”说，卖sell头的人必须大喊大叫，但“狗无视”它不会大喊大叫，因为它是商人。
However, at that time, Tianjin still had many well-known brand names: Goubuli, Synonymous Cheng, Sanhecheng, Baofacheng, Tonghecheng, Defacheng, Tianlicheng...
Even Liang Shiqiu said: "Tianjin Baozi is famous far and wide, especially the name of Goubuli is very loud. In fact, you don’t have to go to Goubuli, as soon as you take the Pingjin train to Tianjin West Railway Station. A group of bun sellers raised the basket to the car window and can buy a few buns with their arms outstretched."
Then when did the buns in Tianjin start to become the dominant family?
In fact, in the 1940s, under the influence of the general environment and poor management, Goubuli once went bankrupt.
In the mid-1950s, Li Gengtao, the mayor of Tianjin at the time, proposed to restore traditional food, with "Goubuli" as a key support object, and merged Baozi shops such as Synonyms, Tonghehe, and Sanhehe into "Goubuli". It opened to customers under the name of "State-owned Tianjin Goubuli Buns Shop".
Later, a foreign state-owned catering service company came to join forces with Goubuli Baozi, and opened Goubuli Baozi to other places. Tianjin Goubuli Baozi became louder and louder.
In 2000, Feng Gong and Guo Donglin mentioned the "thin-skinned, big stuffing, and eighteen-fold" Goubuli steamed buns in the cross talk "Old Songs and New Songs" of the Spring Festival Gala, making it popular all over the country.
In this way, Goubuli steamed buns became a symbol of Tianjin cuisine.
If you go to Tianjin now, if you still have to eat dogs, if you have Tianjin friends, he will definitely persuade you: No Zuo No Die, Why You Try?
Goubuli was still able to fight in Tianjin until the 1980s. But after the 1990s, Gougou ignored the restructuring, rushing to the top and going international.
The grade has gone up, and the price has naturally risen. A steamed bun is equivalent to a dozen yuan, which is enough to eat a steamed bun outside.
Goubuli can be called the LV of the buns world, but the taste has not changed, and even declined.
On the one hand, the broth and stuffing were cancelled, saying that it was a "historical misinformation"; on the other hand, the ratio of fat to lean was changed, and the experience of "one bite and one bite" disappeared.
Of course, even if the original taste is maintained, whether this traditional meaty and oily taste can win the favor of modern people is still unknown.
Goubuli’s target customers have also changed from locals to foreign tourists: you can experience Baozi for an extra 50 yuan, and some people sing allegro for dining in the box. Why did Yuan Shikai dedicate Goubuli to Lafayette Cixi.
Let’s not talk about the late Qing Dynasty more than 100 years ago, but now, I bought freshly baked buns in Tianjin and returned to Beijing on the Fuxing High Speed Rail. Then the buns lost their best taste.
In addition, the tourist business is mostly a one-shot deal, and the service experience is not good. It is normal to lose local popularity.
During the period of the Republic of China, there were a lot of wealthy and politicians going around Tianjin, and no one had a romance with Baozi. When it comes to grades, everything goes to the Empress Dowager Cixi.
After all, steamed buns are still a common delicacy, no matter how careful they are done, everyone expects it to be the daily taste and home-cooked taste. No one expects it to be the same as delicacy.
There is a scene in the drama "Treasure Island and One Village":
In 1949, Grandma Qian, her daughter, and son-in-law traveled all the way from Peiping to the south and settled in a military village in Chiayi, Taiwan. In her spare time, Tianjin Renqian's grandmother taught Mrs. Zhu, a native of the province, the secret of steamed stuffed buns: The ratio of fat to lean meat must be adjusted according to seasonal changes. The fat to lean ratio is three to seven in summer and four to six in winter. It is a pity that Mrs. Zhu still seems to understand, and Grandma Qian muttered: "Tianjin, my home, my home..." She yelled to the north, and finally wept sadly.
Steamed buns, like most Tianjin delicacies, are everyday and grounded. Tianjin people's hope and enthusiasm for life are incorporated into these home-made foods. Although simple and unpretentious, they should never be compromised.
Lost these, also lost the soul of Tianjin Baozi.